Who do You Say Christ Is? Part I
The People’s Answers
Matthew 6:13-20

Who do you say Christ is: this question, and its answer, was relevant in Jesus’ day and it is today. Who Jesus is will remain a question for all seasons because Jesus is the man for all seasons. Moreover, the person and work of Christ and the eternal design of the Triune God is under attack from within and without the Church. It is vital that the Church answer the question and correctly.

Jesus’s question moved to the heart of the issue: the disciples’ heart. God designed mankind a duplex being, inner and outer man. Often man’s duplexity is characterized as a dichotomy – a division and compartmentalization. In reality, man is a unit. He has a body but he is more than body. He has a spirt but he is more than spiritual. Man is a whole person. As such, he thinks and desires in both the outer man (the body particularly the brain) and the inner man (the heart – Proverbs 4:23; 16:21, 23). Jesus’ question cut to the very core of one’s whole being. The answer is based on one’s view of God and self.

In Matthew 16, Jesus is with His disciples. In the preceding verses (16:5-12), Jesus warned the disciples to be on guard against the yeast of the spiritual leaders. The disciples came to realize that Jesus was not speaking of physical yeast and its effects. He referenced the teaching of the Pharisee’s and their manner of life and leadership (16:12; 11:28-30; Luke 12:1-2). The Pharisees taught that no spiritual messiah was needed for them and those under their teaching (Matthew 9:13; 12:7). Personal lawmaking and personal lawkeeping was adequate and should be accepted by God. The Pharisees and their followers had endorsed the adequacy of their own lawmaking and lawkeeping. They had themselves as their own messiah. They did not need a spiritual messiah, only a physical one. They needed freedom from Rome and her domination. They denied their spiritual bondage (John 8:33).

Jesus and the disciples moved into pagan territory in part for privacy and quietness (16:13). Beginning with Matthew 16:13, Jesus began to teach and instruct the disciples about Himself. His motif was question-asking. He probed their hearts by asking questions. He waited for an answer and then moved to instruction. This is an excellent tool for one-on-one ministry.

The first question is noted in verse 13: Who do the people say the Son of Man is. Several points are noteworthy.
• Jesus is referencing the common people as to their view of the messiah and Him. Did the apostles link the two?
• The question probed the disciples in several ways. Jesus wanted to know how much other-orientation the disciples had. Knowing where people are is a key ingredient for godly one-on-one ministry. Jesus was challenging them as He ministered appropriate biblical truth to them in their situation given their level of spiritual maturity and their level of willingness to understand and apply the truth.

Questions tend to probe the heart and accusations often make it easy for a person to harden himself.
• Taking a spiritual inventory is worthwhile for the both the one ministering and the one receiving truth.
• Jesus called Himself the Son of Man which was in marked contrast to the people’s response. T

he Jewish expectation was one of a nationalistic messiah to remove the burden of Rome. The title Son of Man is used some 80 times in the gospels and all but one by Jesus (John 12:34). It was Jesus’ most common designation for Himself. It is a generally thought to be a Messianic title. The Son of Man must suffer, be rejected, be killed, and be raised (Mark 8:31). Most likely, Jesus referenced Daniel 7:13-14. The use of the designation by Christ implied that Jesus expected the disciples to know their Scripture. The Messiah had come and He was Him.

The disciples wasted little time in answering. The people gave varying false opinions: John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. The disciples were aware that the crowds had several ideas. However and basically the answers indicated that the people thought of Jesus as the ghost of a dead man. The disciples must have heard the people speaking and knew the prevailing opinions. There was a diversity of human opinions but all missed the truth. The idea of Messiah as intended by the title Son of Man was not included in any answer. The prevailing view consisted only of a physical bondage and a savior from that bondage. The people’s answers as reported by the disciples reflected a lack of understanding of Jesus the person and His message and mission. It also reflected a wrong understanding of who they were.

Some people considered Jesus a teacher and approached Him as such (rich young rules and the lawyer of Luke 10). Others considered Him a “good guy” and a miracle worker. The people wanted a physical messiah and Jesus did not have that appearance or demeanor. None considered Jesus to be truly God and truly man who save His people from Satan, their sins, and themselves. A wrong view of Jesus indicates a wrong view of sin, sinners, sinfulness, and its consequences.

1. Who do You say Christ is?
2. What is your source of information and standard for your answer?
3. How are you are able to declare the truth about Christ?
4. What is your response to that truth in your daily life in terms of specific thoughts, desires, and actions?

The Disciples Answer: Part II
Matthew 16:13-20

We continue the series: Who do you say Christ is? Matthew recorded a second question in verse 15. Jesus probed the hearts of the disciples by asking: But what about you – who do you say I am? Jesus’ second question distinguished the disciples from the people. In His second question, Jesus placed the plural you in an emphatic position. Jesus was getting personal as He honed in on the crux of the matter. Jesus wanted to know for their sake if their answer contained more truth than that of the common people. By questions, Jesus was helping the disciples form a right view of God, Him, and themselves.

Matthew used the verb to be – I am. In the original language I am is an infinitival form of the verb to be. The importance of that fact rested on Jesus and His purpose. He asked an ontological question. He coned down on their understanding of His being and essence. A proper understanding of who Jesus was would provide the disciples with a proper view of Jesus, His message, His mission; and a proper view of their message and ministry as God’s agents. All of these aspects were linked but the disciples did not understand this linkage. However, their understanding would increase in manifold fashion at the Spirit’s coming as recorded in John 21 and at Pentecost.

Earlier, as recorded in Matthew 14:22-33, two men walked on water. When the disciples saw Jesus alone walking on the water, the disciples responded fearfully. What they saw with their physical eyes exceeded their comprehension. Jesus admonished them to be of courage and not to fear. He was exhorting them to consider people and events from the vantage point of spiritual eyes, the eyes of saving faith. He gave them the reason: it is I. Very God was in their midst. They were not alone left to their own resources. Jesus was in control and He had chosen them. By using the verb to be Jesus equated Himself with God (John 8:58; 10:30). Sinful fear looks away from God and His promises and resources and looks to self as an impotent provider.

In Matthew 16:15, Jesus’ but-you question probed the hearts of His disciples. How truly were they in the faith? The question is a good one for every believer. Jesus’ question left the disciples with little wiggle room. Jesus focused on the threat of the teaching and hypocrisy (yeast) of the Pharisees. The disciples were tempted to accept their teaching as logical and even commendable. Interestingly, Judas was included in this group. They were tempted to be tossed back and forth by accepting human speculations (Colossians 2:8; James 1:5-8).

The disciples came face to face with the living God whose time was growing short on the earth. Jesus’ question to the disciples was an in-your-face question. It was a defining-moment question. Jesus did not need to know the answer for Himself. Rather, He was addressing the disciples who were in their infancy in terms of their development as Christ’s disciples. Jesus expected and deserved fruit bearing especially from these men who were with Him. When much is given much is required (Matthew 25:29; Mark 4:25; Luke 8:18; 12:48). Jesus knew that the disciples needed to be properly informed in regard to their own salvation and in order to grow as a child of God.

Moreover, they needed gospel truth and the gospel message firmly under their belts in order to carry the gospel message forward. If the gospel message had no impact on them individually in terms of changed thinking, wanting, and doing, it would have no impact on others. The Word of God filets the heart and confronts the person with God’s truth (Hebrews 4:12). Change is of the essence for the believer. Knowing Christ – facts about Him – is not sufficient. Even demons know that Jesus the Son of God and His power (Mark 1:34; 5:12; James 2:19). Intimacy with Him by faith through the Holy Spirit was vital for their salvation, growth in grace, and completion of their mission.

1. God’s presence can be a burden or blessing: see the book of Job and see David in Psalms 32 and 38. How do you view God’s presence and on what basis?
2. Jesus’ second question (who do you say I am?) was intended to be personal. How do you answer the question? What do you know about Jesus?
3. Salvation is personal but it is never to remain personal. Explain.

The Source of the Disciples’ Answer: Part III
Matthew 16:13-20

We conclude the series; Who do you say Christ is? In this portion of Scripture, Jesus revealed Himself as the Teacher. He conducted a question-and-answer session with His disciples. He was taking the pulse of the disciples and the people of Israel. He knew their answers to the questions but He wanted the disciples to answer aloud. The answers were a matter of life and death and still are.

In verse 16, Peter answered Jesus’ question given in verse 15: who do say I am. Peter responded for the group: You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God. Peter’s response was knowledgeable, personal, and relational. It contrasted the people’s perspective of Jesus. Peter’s answer echoed Yahweh’s self-designation in Exodus 3:6 and 6:14-15 (Acts 7:32) and Jesus’ declaration in Matthew 22:32 and John 8:56-58. In contrast to the crowd, Peter referred to only one person – the living God-man Jesus. Peter acknowledged the deity of Christ. The disciples as a group had previously acknowledged Jesus to be God’s Son (Matthew 14:33).

As believers Peter and the disciples were known by God. But they were lacking in their understanding of Who Christ was and what their relationship to and with Him would mean for them. They saw and heard Jesus and his techi9ng. Surely He was man and a special man. They observed His signs, miracles, and wonders. They wanted to believe but they were not there yet. Jesus was preparing the apostles (minus Judas) to present truth to Judea and Samaria. The gospel message would go worldwide. The Disciples needed to growth in knowledge and faithfulness. Therefore Jesus asked a life-changing question. They did not know the extent and depth of the answer. Peter’s answer for the group was a step in a progressive unveiling of the physical eyes and the spiritual hearts to the reality of Jesus Christ. Jesus was beginning to intensify His personal instruction to them. He was on a timetable and the disciples needed to be on board.

Christ put Peter’s answer into a proper perspective. First, He acknowledged the source of the truth expressed in Peter’s words – it is divine revelation by the Holy Spirit (Matthew 16:17). Peter by nature was a human son of a human father. In contrast, Jesus was by nature and from all eternity, the divine Son of the Divine Father. Natural human knowledge – the knowledge from below – would never prepare man to plumb the depths of God’s mind and truth (Romans 1:18-23; 11:33-36; 1 Corinthians 2:10-16). Second, humanly speaking, no one can proclaim Jesus as the true Messiah unless the Holy Spirit had worked within the heart of that person (John 3:3-8; 6:60-64). Unlike the people, Peter spoke under the influence of the Holy Spirit. Peter proclaimed truth about Jesus the Person – His essence and being. The gift and declaration of the truth about the Truth required the supernatural work of the Holy Spirit

Implied in Christ’s proclamation of the source of Peter’s answer is a third and most important question. The question is: Who does God say Jesus is? Jesus alluded to this when He declared that supernatural thinking is humanly impossible without the Holy Spirit (Matthew16:17). Do you agree with Jesus and on what basis? Matthew recorded the Father proclamation regarding Jesus in two places: This is my beloved Son with whom I am well-pleased (Matthew 3:17; 17:5). The Father’s admonition to the three disciples on the mountain was to listen to Jesus (Matthew 17:5). The Father and the Son are one (John 10:30). Listening to Jesus was tantamount to listening to the Father through the Holy Spirit (John 14:6-9, 27; 16:13).

Jesus taught that God is the source of all truth. Truth is personal, objective, absolute, and revelational. God is truth – Psalm 31:5; Isaiah 45:19; 65:16); Jesus is truth – John 8:31-32; 14:6; the Holy Spirit is truth – John 14:27; 16:13; and Scripture is truth – John 17:17. For those reasons, Truth is life changing (John 8:31-32). In Matthew 16:17, Jesus pronounced a blessing on Peter and all those who agreed with him. Today we listen to the Triune God as we read, recite, meditate, memorize, internalize, verbalize, personalize, and actualize God’s truth. Believers are to be busy hearing, learning, and applying biblical truth daily (Psalm 119:9-11; Matthew 7:24-27).

Who, and what, do YOU think Jesus is? And why do you believe what you believe? How do your beliefs impact your daily thoughts, desires, and actions? The questions imply that Jesus is and that all people have some knowledge of Him. As a believer, God knows you comprehensively and intimately. Your knowledge of Him is relational and it is to be growing. The answer to the questions posed in Matthew 16:13ff center on three facets: you, the knower; the object of your knowledge which should be Jesus Christ alone through the Holy Spirit; and the standard and source for your answer. There is only one true source – God’s truth as revealed in the Bible. True knowledge of Christ is God’s gift to the believer. God expects and deserves a return on His gift and investment. Salvation and growth in Christlikeness are keys to returning to God what is rightfully His. He deserves all of a person given His way for His glory. Returning to God what is His begins at salvation and continues all the way into heaven. Eternally, the believer will continue to grow in Christlikeness.

1. Who is Christ? What did He come to do and why?
2. Do your answers agree with God’s answers?
3. How have these facts/truths affected your thoughts, desires, and actions daily – 24/7?